عنوان مقاله [English]
نویسنده [English]چکیده [English]
In the Netherlands, serious soil investigations were started in the mid-1800s and in the mid-1900s with university courses and the establishment of research institutes soil science rapidly expanded. The Dutch and Western European society have changed dramatically in the past century from and early industrial society with a dominantly rural and agricultural character to a post-industrial society where services play a key role. The aim of this paper is to contribute to an analysis of the historical developments in soil science, confined to the broad relations between soil science and developments in society in this special context to provide some notes on the future of soil science. To this end, three development waves including the production wave (1945-1970), the environmental wave(1970-late 1980s) and the third wave(late 198s-present) were distinguished that have taken place in the Netherlands and in other Western European countries since World War II in relation to the land. These successive waves gradually come and disappear and may overlap overtime. Regarding development in soil science as a reflection of general developments in society, two waves including supply-driven wave and market-driven wave were distinguished on the basis of shifts in research topics, in quantity of soil research, focus of attention, or modes.