مروری بر اثرات کاربرد بیوچار بر خصوصیات فیزیکی، شیمیایی و زیستی خاک

نوع مقاله: علمی ترویجی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری، گروه علوم و مهندسی خاک، دانشگاه شهرکرد، شهرکرد، ایران.

2 استاد خاکشناسی، گروه علوم و مهندسی خاک، دانشگاه شهرکرد، شهرکرد، ایران

3 استاد خاکشناسی، موسسه تحقیقات خاک و آب، کرج، ایران

چکیده

فعالیت­های انسانی در زمینه های مختلف کشاورزی و صنعتی موجب افزایش روز افزون ضایعات می گردد. دفع و تخلیه نامناسب این ضایعات در محیط باعث ایجاد عوارض نامطلوبی برای محیط زیست می گردد. استفاده مناسب و کاربردی از این ضایعات موجب کاهش فشار بر محیط زیست خواهد شد. بیوچار ماده کربنی است که از گرمادهی بقایای گیاهی و ضایعات در محیط حاوی اکسیژن محدود یا بدون اکسیژن به دست می­آید. تجزیه گرمایی زیست توده در محیط فاقد اکسیژن را گرماکافت می نامند. بیوچار پایداری بالایی داشته و به منظور مدیریت ضایعات، کاهش تغییرات اقلیمی، تولید انرژی و بهبود خصوصیات خاک تولید می­شود. خصوصیات منحصر به فرد بیوچار آن را به عنوان گزینه مناسبی برای مصرف در خاک مطرح ساخته است. بیوچار خصوصیات مختلف فیزیکی (از جمله ساختمان خاک، جرم مخصوص ظاهری، هدایت هیدرولیکی)، شیمیایی (pH، ظرفیت تبادل کاتیونی، میزان مواد آلی) و زیستی خاک (فعالیت میکروبی، تنوع میکروبی، فعالیت آنزیمی، جمعیت میکروبی) را تحت تأثیر قرار داده و موجب بهبود حاصلخیزی خاک می­شود. بیوچار با تأمین بخشی از عناصر مورد نیاز گیاه موجب افزایش عملکرد گیاه می گردد. مصرف بیوچار در اغلب موارد باعث بهبود خصوصیات خاک شده است، هرچند در مواردی نیز آثار منفی آن مشاهده گردیده است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

A Review of Biochar Effects on Soil Physical, Chemical, and Biological Properties

نویسندگان [English]

  • allahyar khadem 1
  • F R 2
  • H B 3
1 PhD Student, Department of Soil Science and Engineering, Shahrekord University, Shahrekord, Iran.
2 Professor of Soil Science, Department of Soil Science and Engineering, Shahrekord University, Shahrekord, Iran.
3 Professor of Soil Science, Soil and Water Research Institute, Karaj, Iran.
چکیده [English]

 
Human agricultural and industrial activities have led to the increasing production of wastes with adverse effects onthe environmentdue to their improper disposal. One solution to reduce pressure on the environment isto plan for appropriate uses of waste materials. Biochar is a carbonaceous material producedin a process called ‘Pyrolysis’ which involves incomplete combustion of biomass and wastes in mediawith no or limited supply of oxygen. Biocharenjoyslong-term persistence in soil and the process is mainly used for waste management, climate change mitigation, energy production, and soil amelioration. Theunique properties of biocharmake it especially useful for soil application as it contributes to soil amelioration. It is capable ofaffectingsuch soil physical properties as soil structure, bulk density, and hydraulic conductivity, or such soil chemical properties as pH, cation and anion exchange capacity, and organic content while it alsoimprovessuch soil biological properties as microbial population, activity, and diversity as well asenzyme activity,all of which ultimately lead toenhanced plant yield. Although most reports have focused on the useful effects of biocharon soil, some have also investigated its negative effects.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • biochar
  • pyrolysis
  • soil properties
  • Plant yield
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دوره 5.1، شماره 1
بهار و تابستان 1396
صفحه 13-30
  • فایل‌های تکمیلی/اضافی
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  • تاریخ دریافت: 01 اردیبهشت 1394
  • تاریخ بازنگری: 01 مهر 1396
  • تاریخ پذیرش: 18 مرداد 1396