تدوین روش مناسب برای تعیین فرسایش قابل تحمل خاک در ایران

نوع مقاله: علمی ترویجی

نویسندگان

1 بخش تحقیقات حفاظت خاک و آبخیزداری، مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی آذربایجان غربی، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، ارومیه، ایران.

2 پژوهشکده حفاظت خاک و آبخیزداری، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، تهران، ایران

چکیده

فرسایش قابل تحمل خاک برای برنامه‌ریزی‌های حفاظت خاک دارای اهمیت زیادی است. با توجه به اینکه مقادیر مشخصی برای تلفات قابل تحمل خاک در ایران وجود ندارد، لازم است میزان آن برای کشور تعیین گردد. لذا این تحقیق با هدف تعیین مقادیر قابل تحمل تلفات خاک در کشور انجام گرفت. در این تحقیق ابتدا با بررسی پژوهش‌های انجام شده، تعاریف فرسایش قابل تحمل از دیدگاه‌های مختلف، عوامل موثر بر آن، روش‌های برآورد و مزایا و معایب هر یک از این روش‌ها مورد مطالعه قرار گرفت تا با مقایسه آنها با شرایط کشور و اطلاعات موجود، روش مناسب برای برآورد فرسایش قابل تحمل در ایران در وضع فعلی تهیه و تدوین گردد. آمار کرت‌های فرسایش به تعداد 292 کرت جمع‌آوری و تحلیل شد. سپس با توجه به اطلاعات موجود، عواملی مشتمل بر ضخامت خاک، لایه محدود کننده، نوع کاربری اراضی و اقلیم به عنوان معیارهای تعیین میزان فرسایش قابل تحمل خاک در کشور مورد استفاده قرار گرفت. بنابراین جدولی تهیه شد که در آن مقادیر قابل تحمل فرسایش خاک بر اساس این عوامل در پنج کلاس طبقه‌‌بندی گردید. طبق جدول پیشنهادی، مقادیر کمینه فرسایش قابل تحمل خاک از 25/0 تا بیشینه 25/1 تن در هکتار در سال برای مراتع در مناطق خشک و نیمه‌خشک می‌‌تواند متغیر ‌باشد. در اراضی جنگلی مناطق زاگرس و سایر جنگل‌های واقع در مناطق نیمه خشک تا نیمه مرطوب و دیمزارهای سراسر کشور می‌توان ارقام جدول را تا پنج برابر افزایش داد. در مناطق جنگلی حاشیه دریای خزر نیز می‌توان مقادیر مندرج در جدول پیشنهادی را تا 10 برابر در نظر گرفت. در مورد اراضی که تحت کشاورزی آبی قرار دارند استفاده از جداول سازمان حفاظت خاک آمریکا پیشنهاد می‌شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Developing a Suitable Method for Determining Soil Loss Tolerance in Iran

نویسندگان [English]

  • reza sokouti oskoee 1
  • mahmoud arabkhedri 2
1 Soil Conservation and Watershed Management Research Department, West Azarbayjan Agricultural and Natural Resources Research Center, AREEO, Uromiyeh, Iran.
2 Soil Conservation and Watershed Management Institute, AREEO, Tehran, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Soil loss tolerance plays an important role in soil conservation programs. As no well-documented soil loss tolerance values are currently available for Iran, the present study was conducted to determine well-founded limits of tolerable soil loss in Iran. For this purpose, a preliminary survey was conducted of the various definitions of tolerable soil loss reported in the literature, the factors involved in the process, the relevant estimation methods, and the advantages/disadvantages associated with each estimation method. The data currently available on Iran were compared with those thus collected to derive and develop an appropriate method for soil loss tolerance estimation in Iran. The data collected on 292 erosion plots were subjected to analysis and such factors as soil thickness, limiting layer, land use, and climate were selected as the criteria to be used in the determination of soil erosion tolerance. The tolerance values thus obtained were then tabulated to classify the factors into five categories. Based on this classification, the allowable limits of tolerable soil loss in (semi-)arid rangelands might range from a minimum of 0.25 to a maximum of 1.25 ton/ha/year. These values might have a five-fold increase for the forests located at the Zagros Range, those in semi-arid to semi-humid areas, and dry farms. Moreover, a ten-fold increase might be allowed in the coastal forests along the Caspian Sea. Finally, the values reported in the USDA recommended by US Soil Conservation Service are suggested for irrigated lands in Iran.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Soil thickness
  • Soil conservation
  • Soil loss tolerance
  • Soil formation rate
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دوره 6.1، شماره 1
بهار و تابستان 1397
صفحه 1-19
  • فایل‌های تکمیلی/اضافی
  • 1.pdf
  • تاریخ دریافت: 08 خرداد 1395
  • تاریخ بازنگری: 31 شهریور 1397
  • تاریخ پذیرش: 16 اسفند 1395