مدل‌های تبدیلی رادیونوکلوئیدهای پلوتونیوم برای برآورد میزان جابجایی خاک

نوع مقاله: علمی ترویجی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری، گروه علوم و مهندسی خاک، دانشکده مهندسی و فناوری کشاورزی، دانشگاه تهران

2 کارشناس ارشد پژوهشکده کشاورزی هسته‌ای، پژوهشگاه علوم و فنون هسته‌ای، تهران، ایران.

3 استادیار پژوهشکده کشاورزی هسته‌ای، پژوهشگاه علوم و فنون هسته‌ای

4 عضو هیأت علمی بازنشسته سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی

5 دانشیار گروه علوم و مهندسی خاک، دانشکده مهندسی و فناوری کشاورزی، دانشگاه تهران

10.22092/lmj.2019.120551

چکیده

تخمین­های کمی و قابل اعتماد از فرآیندهای تخریب خاک برای بهینه کردن و همین­طور موثر بودن عملیات مدیریت اراضی و پایداری سامانه­های کشاورزی امری ضروری است. در سال­های اخیر ایزوتوپ­های پلوتونیوم-240+239 (Pu240+239) به عنوان ردیاب جدید در تحقیقات فرسایش خاک و رسوب پیشنهاد شده است. ایزوتوپ­های Pu240+239 مزایایی از جمله نیمه عمر بالا، قابل دسترس بودن در محیط، دقت مناسب روش­های اندازه­گیری و یکنواخت بودن مقدار آن­ها در نقاط مرجع را نسبت به دیگر ایزوتوپ­های موجود دارا می­باشد. برای تبدیل مقدار ایزوتوپ­های پلوتونیوم-240+239 (Pu240+239)  به میزان جابجایی خاک، مدل­های تبدیلی مناسب مورد نیاز می­باشد. تاکنون تحقیقات اندکی در مورد کاربرد ایزوتوپ­های پلوتونیوم در فرسایش خاک صورت گرفته است و از این رو تنها تعداد محدودی مدل برای محاسبه فرسایش خاک با استفاده از پلوتونیوم پیشنهاد شده است که هر کدام از این مدل­ها با محدودیت­هایی همراه هستند. این مقاله با هدف بررسی مزایا و محدودیت­های مدل­های موجود جهت تبدیل فعالیت ایزوتوپ­های پلوتونیوم-240+239 (Pu240+239)  به میزان جابجایی خاک و تعیین مدل مناسب در این زمینه تهیه گردید. با توجه به مزایایی از قبیل مستقل بودن از نوع کاربری اراضی، تعیین دقیق شکل پروفیل خاک اندازه­گیری شده، شبیه­سازی رفتار دقیق رادیونوکلوئید­های ریزشی تحت شرایط مختلف و قابل دسترس و قابل ویرایش بودن کد مدل MODERN در مقایسه با سایر مدل­های موجود، این مدل به عنوان مدل مناسب جهت تخمین میزان فرسایش و رسوبگذاری با استفاده از این نوع از رادیونوکلوئیدها توصیه می­گردد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Conversion Models for Estimating Soil Redistribution Rates Using Plutonium Radionuclides (239 + 240Pu)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Morad Mirzai 1
  • Rayehe Mirkhani 2
  • Ebrahim Moghiseh 3
  • Mohammad Hassan Roozitalab 4
  • Hossein Asadi 5
1 Ph.D Student, Department of Soil Science and Engineering, Faculty of Agricultural Engineering and Technology, Tehran University
2 2- M.Sc, Nuclear Agriculture School, Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, Tehran, Iran.
3 Assistant Professor of Soil Science, Nuclear Agriculture School, Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute.
5 Associate Prof. Department of Soil Science and Engineering, Faculty of Agricultural Engineering and Technology, Tehran University
چکیده [English]

Quantitative and reliable estimates of soil degradation processes are essential not only for optimizing land management practices but also for ensuring and assessing their effectiveness and the sustainability of the agricultural systems impacted. Application of plutonium (239 + 240Pu) isotopes as new tracers in soil erosion and sedimentation research is a recent development. Compared to other isotopes, these offer such advantages as long half-life, availability in different environments, relatively easy determination methods using highly sensitive techniques, and consistent measurements at reference sites. However, appropriate conversion models are needed to convert the inventory of plutonium (239 + 240Pu) isotopes into soil redistribution rates. Given the few studies reported on the use of plutonium isotopes in soil erosion research, it is natural that only a limited number of models have been so far developed for computing soil erosion rates using plutonium, each of which has its own limitations. This review study will identify and introduce an appropriate model for converting (239 + 240Pu) inventories into soil redistribution rates by exploring the advantages and limitations associated with the models presently available. MODERN is, thus, selected from among the models reviewed and recommended for estimating soil erosion and sedimentation based on its advantages of independence from the type of land use, accurate determination of redistribution in the soil profile, simulation of the exact behavior of fallout radionuclides under different conditions, and its accessible and editable code, all of which make it superior to rival models.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Land degradation
  • Radioisotopes
  • soil erosion
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