اثر بیوچار بر ویژگی‌های فیزیکی، شیمیایی و بیولوژیکی خاک

نوع مقاله: علمی ترویجی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری خاکشناسی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه تبریز، تبریز، ایران

2 دانشیار خاکشناسی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه تبریز، تبریز، ایران

چکیده

بیوچار نوعی ماده آلی غنی از کربن می­باشد که از سوزاندن مواد آلی در شرایط اکسیژن کم و یا بدون اکسیژن تولید می­شود.ویژگی­های فیزیکی و شیمیایی منحصربه­فرد بیوچار، آن را از سایر مواد آلی خاک متمایز می­سازد. افزودن بیوچار به خاک می­تواند باعث بهبود ویژگی­های فیزیکی خاکمانند افزایش سطح ویژه، ظرفیت نگهداری آب، تهویهو کاهش فرسایش خاک، شیمیایی مانند افزایش ظرفیت تبادل کاتیونی، pH، کربن آلی، فراهمی عناصر و کاهش خطر آلاینده­های خاک و بیولوژیکی مانند افزایش کلونیزاسیون و حفاظت از ریزجانداران در برابر شکارچی­ها و افزایش حاصلخیزی خاک و عملکرد محصول، ترسیب کربن و جلوگیری از تغییرات اقلیم و تولید سوخت زیستی شود. با این حال، بیوچار ممکن است دارای اثرهای منفی بر محیط زیست و خاک باشد. به­علّت نوظهور بودن تولید و استفاده از بیوچار، اثرهای مثبت و منفی آن بر اجزای مختلف محیط زیست و برهم­کنش­های آن در خاک هنوز به­درستی روشن نشده است. علاوه­بر آن، ویژگی­های مختلف بیوچار با گذشت زمان تغییر می­کند ولی این تغییرات و اثرات بلندمدّت آن هنوز به­خوبی مشخص نشده است. بیوچار به­علّت اثرات مفیدی که بر خاک­ها و ترسیب کربن دارد، امروزه در جهان بسیار مورد توجه قرار گرفته است ولی در ایران تاکنون تحقیقات چندانی در این رابطه انجام نشده است. لذا لازم است تحقیقات بیش‌تری در مورد فرآیندهای تولید و استفاده از بیوچار در خاک­های ایران انجام شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effects of Biochar on Soil Physical, Chemical, and Biological Properties

نویسندگان [English]

  • yaser azimzadeh 1
  • N N 2
چکیده [English]

  
Biochar is a carbon-rich organic material that is produced from the pyrolysis of organic matter under low or no oxygen. The unique physical and chemical properties of biochar distinguish it from other soil organic matter. Addition of biochar to soil can improve not only its physical properties such as specific surface area, water holding capacity, aeration, and resistance to soil erosion but also its chemical properties such as cation exchange capacity, pH, organic carbon, nutrient availability, and reduced risk of soil contaminants. Moreover, it has such advantageous biological effects as increasing microorganism colonies and their protection against predators, raising soil fertility, enhancing crop yield and carbon sequestration, climate change mitigation, and biofuel production. However, due to its novelty, its positive and negative effects on the environment and interactions with various soil components are not clearly known. In addition, biochar properties may change over time and nothing is yet known about these changes and their long-term effects. Despite the universal attention shown to biochar for its expected beneficial effects on soil and carbon sequestration, few studies have as of yet been devoted to its production and application in Iran, which warrants studies to be conducted on biochar production and application to Iranian soils.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • biochar
  • soil properties
  • pyrolysis
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